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img images 吉布提

债务历史

吉布提的经济在1990年代苦苦挣扎,由于干旱和内战,在1991年至1999年期间,平均总体出现了负增长。然而,该国被认为没有沉重债务,因此没有资格参加重债穷国倡议。也没有公开提到同期中国减免债务。

吉布提的公共债务在整个2000年代一直保持低迷,因为该国的脆弱性意味着全球债权人不愿向其扩大债务。

 然而,自2013年以来,外债增长迅速,2017年达到GDP的122%的峰值,而一般政府债务仅为48%。这些数字之间的差异表明私营部门和表外国有企业参与了外部融资的基础设施项目。

2021年的主要预测

7%

经济增长

1 / 8

DR的债务透明度指数

41.7%

公共债务占GDP的比率

-14.6%

预算余额

吉布提

债务与国内生产总值之比

Since the 2010s, Djibouti has seen an economic boom due to heavy infrastructure investment as well as rising trade flows, with annual GDP growth averaging 7.1% from 2015 to 2019.[1] There has been a considerable increase in government spending on major construction projects, including a railway line and enhanced port activities in line with Djibouti’s attempts to leverage its strategic position in the Horn of Africa. With most infrastructure in the hands of state-owned enterprises, the country has had to accumulate substantial debt to finance these projects: as of 2018, the public debt to GDP ratio stood at 104%.

 

Djibouti’s fiscal deficit peaked at 15.4% of GDP in 2015 due to capital expenditure on the two aforementioned large-scale projects, subsequently declining to 0.8% of GDP in 2019 as these projects approached completion. The two projects in question are: (i) a railway network between Djibouti and Addis Ababa to improve trade links (see below) and (ii) five new or expanded ports. This decline in expenditure outweighed the corresponding fall in government revenue attributed to tax exemptions for key activities, including free trade zones. Meanwhile, total debt service as a share of GNI has more than tripled since 2015 to 21.4% by 2019 because LIBOR-indexed interest rates associated with Djibouti’s loan portfolio rose in the late 2010s. Ultimately, in 2019, the IMF assessed Djibouti’s debt situation as being sustainable: despite growing debt, key loans had been restructured, reducing pressure on national debt servicing capacity.

Djibouti scored the joint lowest in this reports’ Debt Transparency Index, with a score of 1, which was awarded for Djibouti’s functioning Debt Management Office, which has previously received EU funding and training. However, in all other aspects of debt transparency, Djibouti scored zero.

吉布提

收入与预算余额

报告

预计向中国偿还的债务与其他债权人的债务(千美元)

China is Djibouti’s largest creditor, with Chinese credit accounting for 58% of the country’s total external debt stock. Equally, 58% of Djibouti’s debt servicing costs are paid to China. Djibouti has used Chinese loans to finance a $3.5 billion free trade zone, expected to be the biggest in the continent, in addition to constructing a railway, two airports and a pipeline.  While these projects will no doubt generate new economic growth, some other creditors have expressed concern that  Djibouti is too exposed to Chinese debt, which may leave it vulnerable and unable to access financing from them Indeed, whilst the country previously sought financing from the U.A.E., Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Europe, and Turkey it is no longer the case today.

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中国债务与GDP之比

External Debt Stock to China vs. Other Countries (USD millions)

The IMF considers Djibouti’s debt to be sustainable under the baseline scenario, but with a high risk of debt distress given any further economic shock, as their ability to service debt could be substantially weakened. Similarly, the Jubilee debt campaign predict a debt crisis in 2020. The IMF and Jubilee believe that debt vulnerability has grown because of a too heavy focus on big investment projects in a few sub-sectors at the expense of holistic efforts to improve factor productivity, debt management and domestic resource mobilization. Multilateral organisations believe this is reinforced by structural challenges in governance.

Nevertheless, these large investment projects are a source of growth, albeit vulnerable to external shocks. The small Djiboutian economy is heavily dependent on port operations: the manufacturing and service sectors revolve almost entirely around the port’s activities, accounting for more than 80% of GDP. Over 80% of the port’s operations in turn involves Ethiopian trade: Ethiopia is Djibouti’s largest trading partner, and as a landlocked nation, relies on access to the Port of Djibouti to transport its goods. Djibouti’s foreign exchange earnings are likely to fall due to lower demand for Ethiopian exports in 2020 on the back of weak global demand and supply chain disruptions. As a result, Djibouti’s heavy reliance on foreign exchange creates potential vulnerabilities in servicing its debt.

External Debt

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$3.26bn

Acknowledgements:

WRITERS   Joe Peissel and Yike Fu   GRAPHIC DESIGNER  Kayode Animashaun
and The Development Reimagined Team

Statement on use of data:

This debt guide uses a compilation of data from the IMF World Economic Outlook, the World Bank, the AfDB, Trading Economics, Jubilee Debt Campaign, China Africa Research Initiative for Chinese loans, Christoph Trebesch et al. for China Debt Stock Database, DR’s dataset for debt cancellation and COVID spending, as well as the data from countries’ government websites (if applicable).
Plan

Health and Well being choices

55%

Listening Music

47%

Reading

36%

Gardening

25%

Sleeping

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60%

Watching Tv

19%

Meditation

Protect

People are doing to support their fitness

During the month of January, health and fitness is top of mind for people setting resolutions for a healthy new year. Google searches for fitness peak at the beginning of the year and according to data from the International Health, Racquet, and Sportsclub Association (IHRSA), 10.8 percent of all health club members join their gyms in January.

38 %

Home Workout

9 %

Buy Equipment

7 %

Fitness App
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Work

People plan to do at work when
restictions are lifted

40%

Avoid Handshackes and Hug

31%

Limited time spent in mettings

29%

Plan to work more from home

29%

Limite time in public places

33%

Limit visite to supermarket

30%

Do more Online Shopping

Cases

Covid-19 Cases

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout.

COVID-19

Month on Month

Global Corona virus Impact and Implications

COVID-19 cases crossed the 15-million mark globally this week, with South Africa replacing Peru among the top five worst affected countries.

  • US
  • Brazil
  • India
  • Russia
  • 南非
  • Peru
Health

Countries Spend On Their Health Systems

Asia

Africa

America

Europe

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