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数据

img images 毛里塔尼亚

债务历史

1970年代后期,毛里塔尼亚的债务最初是为工业扩张而增长的,但是由于1979年石油价格冲击使全球利率上升,债务开始迅速增长。从1985年开始,IMF和世界银行进行了结构调整计划,与此同时,该国也经常因干旱和与塞内加尔的边界冲突而苦苦挣扎,这严重阻碍了增长。因此,债务在2000年达到GDP的234%的峰值,是世界上债务与GDP比率最高的国家之一。它只是降低了对重债穷国倡议的参与,该倡议冲销了毛里塔尼亚大约一半的债务。

自那以后,毛里塔尼亚的宏观经济表现有所改善,但仍然不稳定,由于主要矿产品出口价格的波动,2015-2019年国内生产总值年平均增长3.6%。自2016年以来,由于旨在加强公共财政的政策变化,该国的年度财政盈余达到2019年GDP的2.8%。

Key Projections for 2022

5%

经济增长

3 / 8

DR的债务透明度指数

57.6%

Gross Debt Position % Of GDP

-2.6%

Budget balance 2021

毛里塔尼亚

债务与国内生产总值之比

The public debt to GDP ratio, having risen to nearly 100% of GDP in the late 2000s, has since declined to 79% as of 2018.

The IMF has concluded that Mauritania remains at high risk of debt distress because of vulnerable terms of trade. Nevertheless, the IMF also thinks the debt situation is moderately sustainable, because of recent efforts involving better tax administration and higher VAT. Additionally, the country’s external debt portfolio consists mostly of public debt with concessional or semi-concessional terms, representing 84% of total external debt as of late 2016. To some extent, this insulates the country’s macro-financial indicators from global shocks affecting exchange rates.

Mauritania scored joint bottom in Development Reimagined’s Debt Transparency Index, as the government does not provide an effective online data portal, nor does it have a publicly available debt strategy, provide government contracts, or allow public access to government statistics and data.

毛里塔尼亚

收入与预算余额

报告

预计向中国偿还的债务与其他债权人的债务(千美元)

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Mauritania is not officially part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative, and Chinese loans are not a major part of the country’s debt portfolio. Chinese credit constituted 8% of Mauritania’s total external debt stocks as of 2017. China loaned about $300 million to Mauritania for the expansion of its port in 2008, which remains the largest project in the country since 2000. The country’s main creditors are key multilateral institutions (including the World Bank and the IMF) at about 48% of Mauritanian external debt, followed by Kuwait (26%) and Saudi Arabia (12%).

中国债务与GDP之比

External Debt Stock to China vs. Other Countries (USD millions)

The Jubilee debt campaign predicts a debt crisis in Mauritania in 2020, and as noted above, the IMF classifies Mauritania as in high risk of debt distress. Stress tests conducted by the IMF reveal that Mauritanian debt is vulnerable to negative shocks that influence exports, commodity prices and growth, which are precisely the indicators under threat due to COVID19.  Despite recent efforts to increase domestic taxes, the increase in borrowing in the mid-2010s to finance infrastructure investment continues to affect debt service costs, which have doubled to 5.5% of GNI in 2018 compared to 2013.

However, as illustrated, Mauritania has some significant long-term financing needs in order for the population to achieve basic standards of life and poverty reduction, in particular ensuring access to electricity and the internet and even providing basic road infrastructure. It is unlikely to be able to meet these through domestic financing alone.

On the other hand, some analysts believe that one factor likely to work in Mauritania’s favour is its relatively strong governance compared to other countries in the region. Debt vulnerabilities could arguably be mitigated once economic growth returns after the pandemic as long as Mauritania is prudent.

External Debt

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$5.22bn

Acknowledgements:

WRITERS   Joe Peissel and Yike Fu   GRAPHIC DESIGNER  Kayode Animashaun
and The Development Reimagined Team

Statement on use of data:

This debt guide uses a compilation of data from the IMF World Economic Outlook, the World Bank, the AfDB, Trading Economics, Jubilee Debt Campaign, China Africa Research Initiative for Chinese loans, Christoph Trebesch et al. for China Debt Stock Database, DR’s dataset for debt cancellation and COVID spending, as well as the data from countries’ government websites (if applicable).
Plan

Health and Well being choices

55%

Listening Music

47%

Reading

36%

Gardening

25%

Sleeping

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60%

Watching Tv

19%

Meditation

Protect

People are doing to support their fitness

During the month of January, health and fitness is top of mind for people setting resolutions for a healthy new year. Google searches for fitness peak at the beginning of the year and according to data from the International Health, Racquet, and Sportsclub Association (IHRSA), 10.8 percent of all health club members join their gyms in January.

38 %

Home Workout

9 %

Buy Equipment

7 %

Fitness App
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Work

People plan to do at work when
restictions are lifted

40%

Avoid Handshackes and Hug

31%

Limited time spent in mettings

29%

Plan to work more from home

29%

Limite time in public places

33%

Limit visite to supermarket

30%

Do more Online Shopping

Cases

Covid-19 Cases

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout.

COVID-19

Month on Month

Global Corona virus Impact and Implications

COVID-19 cases crossed the 15-million mark globally this week, with South Africa replacing Peru among the top five worst affected countries.

  • US
  • Brazil
  • India
  • Russia
  • 南非
  • Peru
Health

Countries Spend On Their Health Systems

Asia

Africa

America

Europe

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