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数据

img images 突尼斯

债务历史

突尼斯的公共债务水平一直保持较低水平,直到2000年代初,到2002年平均债务与国内生产总值的比率为每年48%。这一比率继续下降,到2010年达到39%。这主要是由于审慎的债务管理政策所致。突尼斯从未参加过重债穷国计划,也从未宣布要从中国取消任何债务。具体来说,突尼斯实施了一项结构调整计划,并实现了经济自由化,从而带来了世界银行和其他债权人的贷款。在此期间,突尼斯发展了进入国际资本市场的渠道,并建立了国内政府的固定收益工具,从而减少了对外债的依赖。此外,突尼斯的五年发展计划详细说明了一项承诺,即将国债总额保持在其GDP的60-65%以下,以确保其财政可持续性。

2021年的主要预测

4%

经济增长

6.5 / 8

DR的债务透明度指数

82%

公共债务占GDP的比率

-4.5%

预算余额

突尼斯

债务与国内生产总值之比

However, since the Arab Spring and 2011, Tunisia’s debt burden has significantly increased from 43% to 80% in 2019. Prior to this, the economy was growing at an average of 4.3% a year. The post-Arab Spring period in Tunisia led to a sharp decline in economic development: the economic growth rate was estimated at -1.9% in 2011. Moreover, although its geographic location provided easier access to the Southern Mediterranean, the Arab World and the European market, the recession in Europe after 2008 global financial crisis further deteriorated the economy, as the EU accounted for nearly 80% of Tunisia’s exports, making it difficult to diversity exports. The government of Tunisia made efforts to boost economic growth thereafter, but the progress was slow. Specifically, successive terrorist attacks against the tourism sector and worker strikes in the phosphate sector, key sources of foreign currency income, caused a depreciation of the Tunisian Dinar, which further decreased the government revenues. Taken together, the fiscal deficit widened from 0.6% of GDP in 2010 to 6% of GDP in 2017, bringing into question Tunisia’s ability to repay debt.

However, Tunisia provides a relatively comprehensive range of government data, including budget, fiscal information and debt documents. Tunisia has established a debt management office, passed the Right to Access Information Law, and signed to the Open Government Partnership, leaving it top range amongst analyzed countries in the Debt Transparency Index.

突尼斯

收入与预算余额

报告

Projected debt service to China vs Other creditors

  • US
  • Brazil
  • India
  • Russia
  • 南非
  • Mexico
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The number of Chinese loans to Tunisia is relatively small with the total amount of US$131 million based on the data from China Africa Research Initiative. Little data is available, however it indicates China may account for less than 1% of Tunisia’s current external loan portfolio. There were only seven loan projects recorded during the period between 2000 and 2009 and most were allocated to the communication sector. One loan was provided for the construction of Tunisian National Railways in 2009, which accounted for US$80 million.

However, since the launch of the Belt and Road Initiative in 2013, Tunisia and China have increased cooperation. In 2018, Tunisia became one of the 44 African countries to sign an MOU on the BRI with China. Thereafter in 2019, China granted the government of Tunisia two donations worth 272 million RMB (approx. US$41 million) under two cooperation agreements between the two countries. China helped the construction of the Sfax hospital starting in 2016 and in 2019 China further provided US$70 million in grants to expand a new university hospital. The countries also have cooperation in youth exchange and scientific research such as AI development and ITC enhancement.

中国债务与GDP之比

External Debt Stock to China vs. Other Countries (USD millions)

The Jubilee debt campaign predicts a debt crisis in Tunisia in 2020, with debt payments reducing the capacity to mobilize domestic resources and highlighting vulnerabilities in Tunisia’s ability to fulfil debt obligations. The IMF does not assess Tunisia’s debt sustainability as it is classified as a middle-income country. In terms of its creditworthiness, Fitch downgraded Tunisia’s credit rating to ‘B’ with a stable outlook on May 12, 2020, which is below investment grade and highly speculative and suggests a vulnerable capacity for continued payment under the deteriorating business and economic environment. Continued access to domestic and international finance could help Tunisia to meet outstanding long-term infrastructure financing needs – for example to provide internet access to the entire population as well as improving trade and road infrastructure to more efficient levels.

External Debt

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$34.7bn

Acknowledgements:

WRITERS   Joe Peissel and Yike Fu   GRAPHIC DESIGNER  Kayode Animashaun
and The Development Reimagined Team

Statement on use of data:

This debt guide uses a compilation of data from the IMF World Economic Outlook, the World Bank, the AfDB, Trading Economics, Jubilee Debt Campaign, China Africa Research Initiative for Chinese loans, Christoph Trebesch et al. for China Debt Stock Database, DR’s dataset for debt cancellation and COVID spending, as well as the data from countries’ government websites (if applicable).
Plan

Health and Well being choices

55%

Listening Music

47%

Reading

36%

Gardening

25%

Sleeping

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60%

Watching Tv

19%

Meditation

Protect

People are doing to support their fitness

During the month of January, health and fitness is top of mind for people setting resolutions for a healthy new year. Google searches for fitness peak at the beginning of the year and according to data from the International Health, Racquet, and Sportsclub Association (IHRSA), 10.8 percent of all health club members join their gyms in January.

38 %

Home Workout

9 %

Buy Equipment

7 %

Fitness App
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Work

People plan to do at work when
restictions are lifted

40%

Avoid Handshackes and Hug

31%

Limited time spent in mettings

29%

Plan to work more from home

29%

Limite time in public places

33%

Limit visite to supermarket

30%

Do more Online Shopping

Cases

Covid-19 Cases

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout.

COVID-19

Month on Month

Global Corona virus Impact and Implications

COVID-19 cases crossed the 15-million mark globally this week, with South Africa replacing Peru among the top five worst affected countries.

  • US
  • Brazil
  • India
  • Russia
  • 南非
  • Peru
Health

Countries Spend On Their Health Systems

Asia

Africa

America

Europe

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