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数据

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Key Projections for 2022

4.7%

经济增长

27.8%

Gross Debt Position % Of GDP

债务历史

直到2000年代后期,南非的债务状况一直相对稳定:公共债务与GDP的比率为26.51%,预算赤字仅为GDP的0.5%,外债总额占2008年的24%。原因是自1990年代以来国内金融市场发展完善的金融和法律框架。例如,政府开发了南非债券交易所,金融服务委员会和南非储备银行。南非政府后来于1999年在国家财政部下成立了资产和负债管理部,以发展其债务管理策略。此外,根据政府债务和风险管理计划,南非从世界银行获得了技术援助。但是,南非从未加入重债穷国,也从未宣布取消中国的债务。

Key Projections for 2022

4.7%

经济增长

7 / 8

DR的债务透明度指数

27.8%

Gross Debt Position % Of GDP

-11.1%

Budget balance 2021

Botswana

债务与国内生产总值之比

Since 2008, South Africa’s public debt level has continuously increased and was at 62.2% of GDP in 2019. The ratio changed less as a result of more debt but more as a result of lower economic performance: economic growth has fallen to an average of 1.5% per annum. This has been associated with a high unemployment rate of 30%, a decrease in private investment, and an increase in government spending to finance energy (via the state-owned company Eskom). This has also widened the country’s fiscal deficits, which was projected to reach 6.25% of GDP in 2019, compared to only 0.53% of GDP in 2008.

Before 2020, the economic development of South Africa had slowed down further for two consecutive years, accounting for 0.8% growth rate in 2018 and only 0.2% in 2019.

The country has relatively well-functioned health financing system, compared with other African countries. South Africa was ranked 34 among 195 countries worldwide in the 2019 Global Health Security Index – the top of all African countries. In 2017, the country allocated 13.3% of total government expenditure to the health sector, yet 11.3% of total government expenditure was used for debt interest payments, which could indicate opportunity costs, depending on whether the activities being financed by debt are increasing citizens’ welfare or generating economic returns. Nevertheless, South Africa’s debt service has increased as the country’s debt level has risen. Debt interest payments of total government expenditure in 2008 were 4% lower than it in 2018.

South Africa does have one of the highest scores in the Debt Transparency Index with an effective data portal and an existence of a debt management office. The country passed the Promotion of Access to Information Act and is a signatory to the Open Government Partnership, publishing all government contracts for public access.

Botswana

收入与预算余额

报告

Projected debt service to China vs Other creditors

South Africa has been taking an increasing amount of loans from China since 2009 but it does not represent a substantial share of South Africa’s external debt stocks – only around 4% of its total external debt stocks was from China in 2017 – a gradual increased from 1.2% in 2009. According to Chinese Africa Research Initiative, South Africa asked China to finance at least 17 projects between 2000-2018. Most of them (11) were loans to support the country’s foreign currency position. The rest were mainly focused on transport and power sector. The reason for the former type of loans may be that China is South Africa’s one of the most important trading partners. In 2018, China became its largest export destination and South Africa exported US$18.1 billion to China, accounting for 15.7% of South Africa’s total export value. The main products exported from South Africa were gold, iron ore, and manganese ore.

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中国债务与GDP之比

External Debt Stock to China vs. Other Countries (USD millions)

The IMF does not evaluate South Africa’s debt situation as it is classified a middle-income country. It is also not considered to be at risk of debt distress by the Jubilee Debt Campaign. Partly this is because South Africa has well-developed manufacturing and financial hubs and well-established logistic infrastructures that connect regional and global markets, as well as being rich in natural resources. But a high unemployment rate, unstable electricity supplies, and political infighting among the ruling party have more recently further slowed down economic growth. Challenges in management of the state-owned company Eskom also increased the debt burden.  However, in terms of financing infrastructure needs going forwards, South Africa is in a stronger position than many other countries analysed in this guide. Only internet access appears to be significantly behind, so it is possible that South Africa could deliver these improvements through domestic financing.

However, Fitch’s credit rating agency downgraded South Africa to ‘BB’ on April 3 with a negative outlook due to its failure on government debt stabilization as well as the impact of the COVID-19 related to shock on government revenue and growth. This credit rating is nevertheless the third strongest amongst the countries analysed in this guide.

External Debt

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$179.3bn

Acknowledgements:

WRITERS   Joe Peissel and Yike Fu   GRAPHIC DESIGNER  Kayode Animashaun
and The Development Reimagined Team

Statement on use of data:

This debt guide uses a compilation of data from the IMF World Economic Outlook, the World Bank, the AfDB, Trading Economics, Jubilee Debt Campaign, China Africa Research Initiative for Chinese loans, Christoph Trebesch et al. for China Debt Stock Database, DR’s dataset for debt cancellation and COVID spending, as well as the data from countries’ government websites (if applicable).
Plan

Health and Well being choices

55%

Listening Music

47%

Reading

36%

Gardening

25%

Sleeping

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60%

Watching Tv

19%

Meditation

Protect

People are doing to support their fitness

During the month of January, health and fitness is top of mind for people setting resolutions for a healthy new year. Google searches for fitness peak at the beginning of the year and according to data from the International Health, Racquet, and Sportsclub Association (IHRSA), 10.8 percent of all health club members join their gyms in January.

38 %

Home Workout

9 %

Buy Equipment

7 %

Fitness App
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Work

People plan to do at work when
restictions are lifted

40%

Avoid Handshackes and Hug

31%

Limited time spent in mettings

29%

Plan to work more from home

29%

Limite time in public places

33%

Limit visite to supermarket

30%

Do more Online Shopping

Cases

Covid-19 Cases

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout.

COVID-19

Month on Month

Global Corona virus Impact and Implications

COVID-19 cases crossed the 15-million mark globally this week, with South Africa replacing Peru among the top five worst affected countries.

  • US
  • Brazil
  • India
  • Russia
  • 南非
  • Peru
Health

Countries Spend On Their Health Systems

Asia

Africa

America

Europe

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